[Annual Observations] What developments have the world aviation engines experienced in 2016?

Abstract As a supplier of aero-engine parts, IHI also supplies Pratt & Whitney with fan blades for gear-driven turbofan (GTF) engines and participates in GE's GE9X engine program. The test verified supersonic ignition, stable combustion, inlet structure, fuel injection...
As a supplier of aero-engine components, IHI also supplies Pratt & Whitney with fan blades for gear-driven turbofan (GTF) engines and participates in GE's GE9X engine program. The test verified key technologies such as supersonic ignition, stable combustion, inlet structure, and fuel injection system.

Reform forms a new strategic structure. On August 28, 2016, China Aviation Engine Group was established in Beijing. The new group will focus on engine design, manufacturing, testing, and related materials development to establish the complete development and production of China's aviation engines. The industrial chain will improve the overall level of China's aviation engines. The new group has become the main body of the major national science and technology projects for aero-engines and gas turbines, marking a new pattern for China's aero-engine industry.
In September, General Electric (GE) announced the acquisition of two European 3D printing companies: SLM Solutions of Germany and Arcam of Sweden, both of which manufacture metal 3D printing machines capable of 3D printing of turbine engine components. In December, GE entered into an acquisition agreement with German Concept Laser, allowing GE to fully acquire the company within a few years. Concept Laser's main business is the design and manufacture of laser bed-based laser 3D printer beds. In 2001, the company commercialized the first metal additive manufacturing machine tool and maintained industry leadership for 16 years.
In December, Rolls-Royce confirmed that it would pay 720 million euros to the Spanish engineering group SENER to buy the remaining 53.1% of the joint venture ITP company. ITP is a well-known aero engine manufacturer in Spain.

In January, the Japanese Defense Ministry revealed that Japan is preparing to manufacture its next-generation fighter engine core machine, demonstrating verification in FY2017, and demonstrating the demonstration of the whole machine in FY20; and has carried out cores such as high-pressure compressors and combustion chambers. Testing of key components of the machine. In October, at the "2016-International Aerospace Exhibition", Japan showed the latest domestic XF7-10 turbofan engine. The XF7-10 was developed by Ishikawajima Heavy Industries (IHI) for the P-1 anti-submarine aircraft. As a supplier of aero-engine components, IHI also supplies Pratt & Whitney with fan blades for gear-driven turbofan (GTF) engines and participates in GE's GE9X engine program.
In August, Iran exhibited its own turbojet engine for the first time in the capital Tehran. In November, it was reported that Iran had launched a new heavy-duty aero engine that would use military aircraft's application standards and could be fitted on a supersonic military aircraft being developed in Iran.
In June, Russian media reported that Russia has begun to develop a turbofan engine with a maximum thrust of 35 tons, aiming at a large-scale long-range wide-body passenger aircraft jointly developed by China and Russia. This is the largest thrust turbofan engine developed by Russia so far.
India, which has been faltering in the field of gas turbine engines, successfully completed its first super-combustion ramjet with a flying ignition test in August. After the flight platform reached a predetermined condition of 20 km in height and Mach 6 , the scramjet engine was started to ignite and continued to operate for 5 seconds. The test verified key technologies such as supersonic ignition, stable combustion, inlet structure, and fuel injection system.
Due to the high technical difficulty of the aeroengine, the high development cost, the high development risk and the long development cycle, after years of development, it has been highly oligopolistic. Take the civilian large thrust turbofan engine as an example. Only the United States, Britain, Russia, France and other countries can complete independent research and development. These developed countries, while strictly blocking the technology, gradually control the upstream of the industrial chain to curb the development of other countries. China, India and other countries have improved their capabilities and narrowed the gap through continuous reform, adjustment and sustainable development. It is worth noting that Japan is steadily advancing along the core engine to the aircraft engine R&D path of the whole machine while actively “breaking into” various advanced aero-engine projects in the United States through various means such as technology and capital.

New products open a new era Entering the market In January, the first A320neo aircraft equipped with the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engine was delivered to Lufthansa, marking the official commercial operation of the Pratt & Whitney GTF engine. In addition to the A320neo, the GTF engine is also used on Bombardier C series, Mitsubishi MRJ and other aircraft. The engine separates the large bypass ratio turbofan engine fan shaft from the low pressure turbine shaft through a tight gear transmission system, allowing each component to operate at optimum speed to improve component efficiency and reduce fuel consumption (more than current order) The channel aircraft engine is 15% lower). At present, Pratt & Whitney GTF engines have received orders from more than 80 customers in more than 30 countries and have delivered them one after another. On December 15, China Southern Airlines received the first batch of this type of engine. On the 16th, the Bombardier CS300 aircraft equipped with GTF engines began commercial flight.
In October, industry giant CFM International delivered the 30,000th CFM56 engine, which is popular in the single-aisle aircraft market, powering more than 12,000 military and civilian aircraft and is one of the most reliable aero engines. The new generation LEAP series engines have sold more than 11,000 engines before being delivered to the first customer. The engine significantly reduces fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and other factors by introducing carbon fiber composites in low-pressure components, ceramic-based composites (CMC) for high-pressure components, and the use of fourth-generation 3D aerodynamic design blades. This summer, the first A320neo aircraft loaded with LEAP was delivered to Turkish Pegasus Airlines.

In the August model , Rolls-Royce's Advance 3 core machine verification machine opened a series of tests. This is a milestone for Rolls-Royce's next-generation strategic engine development program (Advance and UltraFan), marking a solid step forward in the field of civilian engines. Rolls-Royce expects to use the Advance engine by 2020, with a bypass ratio of over 11, a total pressure ratio of more than 60, and a fuel consumption reduction of at least 20% over the current "Trent" 700. Based on the Advance core machine, UltraFan introduces a gear transmission to achieve a bypass ratio of 15, a pressure ratio of more than 70, and a fuel consumption reduction of at least 25% compared to the "Trent" 700. In October, Rolls-Royce began testing its large "powered gearbox."
In October, GE completed the first round of ground testing of the first complete GE9X aero engine. As the world's largest commercial aircraft engine, with a fan diameter of about 3.4 meters and a thrust rating of about 45 tons, it will power the Boeing 777X and is scheduled to be put into use in 2020. The engine features a new generation of high pressure compressors with a pressure ratio of up to 27, a high efficiency, low emission third generation TAPS III combustion chamber and a combustor and turbine with CMC material.
In October, Safran Helicopter Engine Company officially launched the 2500~3000 shaft horsepower (1838~2205 kW) civil turboshaft engine project. It plans to prepare airworthiness certification before the end of the year and manufacture higher power models by the end of 2017. Designed based on the technology proven by the Safran Tech 3000 project, the new engine uses a similar architecture to the RTM 322 as a new generation of competitors for the GE CT7 engine, targeting the X2 helicopter program that Airbus plans to launch in the next decade.
In November, Russia completed the first test of the "Product 30" engine, the second stage of the Russian fifth-generation fighter PAK FA, to replace the prototype and the 117S engine of the early production machine. Compared with 117S, the number of "product 30" fans and high-pressure compressors is reduced, increasing the use of new materials such as nickel-based single crystal blades, CMC materials, and new heat-resistant alloys. The fuel consumption rate is reduced by more than 15%. The thrust increased from 14.5 tons to 18 tons. It is expected that "Product 30" will fly first in 2017 and be completed in 2020.
In December, Russia started the second phase of the new generation of civil turbofan engine PD-14, which was developed for the country's “big aircraft” MC-21. It is worth noting that in order to meet the requirements of economy and environmental protection, the core machine is newly designed and is called the hope of the renaissance of the Russian aviation industry.
Or for military needs, or to meet market demand, especially for environmental protection, safety, economic and other requirements, aviation engine giants have adopted new technologies and launched new products. On the one hand, it can maintain industry leading and market share, crowd out rivals, on the other hand, it will apply the mature results of technology research and development to the model in time, and return the funds through technology to return to research and development, and the two complement each other. In the realization path of new products, different companies have given different answers, and some have steadily and steadily progressed, such as CFM56 to optimize the performance of traditional components to improve performance; some have other ways to develop, such as Pratt & Whitney The gear transmission technology has made the engine performance leap forward.

Technological innovation enters a new phase Conventional engine development project In June, the US Air Force awarded GE and Pratt & Whitney “Adaptive Engine Conversion Project” (AETP) contracts for a total amount of US$2 billion, which is designed to continue at the end of 2016. The Adaptive Engine Technology Development (AETD) project develops, manufactures and tests adaptive engine engineering verification machines using the proven technology of AETD's key components and core machines to prepare for the US Air Force's six-generation fighter engine after 2020, and for Mid-term replacement of the F-35 aircraft. This indicates that the US military's sixth-generation engine has been officially transferred from the technical research stage to the engineering development stage.
In August, the US Army awarded Advanced Turbine Engines (ATEC) and GE a "Improved Turbine Engine Project" (ITEP) contract. The project aims to develop a more powerful, more reliable, lower fuel consumption turboshaft engine for the UH-60 Black Hawk utility helicopter and the AH-64E Apache attack helicopter. This contract is mainly used to advance the design work in 2018 and prepare for the tender for the “Engineering and Manufacturing Development” (EMD) phase. The US Army hopes that the first IEP engines will be put into use in 2024. Compared with the U700-AH and AH-64 currently equipped T700 turboshaft engines, the fuel consumption rate is reduced by 25%, the power is increased by 50%, and the design life is extended. 20%, can work well in high temperature / high altitude environment. ATEC and GE have developed the dual-axis HPW3000 and the single-axis GE3000 for the project.
In September, the United States began planning for the “Advanced Turbine Technology to Support Economically Responsible Missions” (ATTAM) program. The goal of the ATTAM program is to develop technologies for a range of next-generation high, medium and low power turboshafts and fighter engines; in addition to advanced propulsion technology, the program includes for the first time a complete integrated energy and thermal management element, primarily for the future. The engine supports more power systems, directed energy weapons, and more powerful sensors, while improving propulsion efficiency and the energy level of the aircraft itself. The plan is considered to be a new generation of national military aviation engine technology development plans.
In December, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) said it successfully tested an "embedded" engine design that incorporates an aero engine into the wing of an aircraft to facilitate boundary layer ingestion (BLI) technology, "anti-traditional" Ingest low-speed boundary layer air flowing through the surface of the aircraft to improve fuel efficiency and reduce noise. If the design is feasible, it will make a revolutionary aircraft like the "double bubble" D8 possible, and air transport will also open a new era.

Innovative exploration and development plan In July, the British reaction engine company (REL) claimed to start the ground of the synergistically aspirated rocket engine Sabre (SABRE) 1/4 scale verification machine (size comparable to the F135 engine) by 2020. test. The Sabre engine is the company's power plant for its “Cloud Tower” single-stage orbiting aerospace aircraft. Its core is the strong pre-cooling technology for rapid air cooling in the future. This technology has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). ) Confirmation is feasible.
In August, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) publicized the tender notice document for the Advanced Advanced State Engine (AFRE) project, marking the entry of the project into a substantive phase. This project aims to develop and ground-test an engine that can work seamlessly, reusable, hydrocarbon fuel, full-size turbine-based stamping assembly (TBCC) with a Mach number between 0 and 5. The power requirements of hypersonic aircraft, such as hypersonic aircraft capable of performing an intelligence surveillance reconnaissance (ISR) mission in a denying environment. The project will use jet pre-cooling technology to expand the turbine engine envelope to achieve seamless transition between turbine/stamp mode.
It is also worth mentioning that with the maturity of technologies such as 3D printing and CMC materials, their use in aero engines has gradually increased, and it has shown significant advantages. For example, the LEAP engine uses a 3D printed fuel nozzle that increases durability by a factor of four, fuel efficiency by 15%, and weight by 25%. The US 3D printed hypersonic engine combustion chamber was also tested successfully. After the F414 engine took the lead in successfully testing the CMC low-pressure turbine rotor blades in 2014, the PW1000G engine also used CMC low-pressure turbine blades, and the Advance core machine used a sealing section with CMC.
While conventional gas turbine aeroengines and hypersonic engine technologies are significantly ahead of other countries, the United States has completed a series of comprehensive, systematic, and coherent project plans for decades, from technical research to development verification. And then to the technology maturity process of model transfer, to promote innovation and development, on the one hand continue to tap the potential of traditional technology, on the one hand to explore cutting-edge technology, cultivate subversive technology, for the maturity of technology, model pre-research, product development and roots.

From the perspective of observing the annual development of aero-engines, it can be seen that aviation engines are the embodiment of the country's comprehensive strength, and few countries can develop and manufacture. The aero engine powerhouse has continued to advance on the basis of its strong technology. It is still far ahead of the country. Although the country is still struggling to catch up, there is still a big gap, but the gap is gradually narrowing. In general, the development of aero-engines has been basically clear, and the rational development path has been basically clear, that is, conventional development and innovation and exploration and development. One is based on the present, one is on the future; one is aimed at products, one is emphasizing technology; the two are interdependent, mutual cause and effect, and they all need to be adhered to.
Lay the foundation and accumulate technology. Exploration and pre-study are the foundation. A high-performance engine is the result of decades of technological precipitation and experience accumulation. It has left the basic work of exploration and preliminary research that are not specific to the specific model or even successful. The development model is no different from the castle in the air. Various US project plans are designed to advance technological advances, and the advanced technologies and lessons learned during their development, either used in a certain engine or used in other industries, will ultimately drive the country. Progress, but also has the role of preventing technological surprises in other countries.
Look for the direction and persist in development. On the conventional form of gas turbine engine, the United States keenly captured the changing cycle, which may change the technical direction of the game rules, and the company supported the development of the technology through one after another plans and projects for several decades. From the principle to the key technology research and to the core component test, to the integration verification, the developers are gradual, one step at a time. The development of a new propulsion system is a long-term, capital-intensive project. The expected result of such a large amount of resources is to create a highly complex product that can continue to serve for decades, with long-term economic and military leadership. In other countries.
Distracted difficulties, each broken. Any new type of engine may involve a number of key technologies at the next level, such as fans, compressors, and high-temperature materials. This requires making full use of existing platform resources, rationally arranging technical routes, and conducting individual studies on these technologies. Verification, and then multiple combinations of verification, and finally integrated verification, gradually increase the difficulty. This makes it easy to grasp the research progress and control risks, and it is also easy to display research results and enhance project confidence.

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